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Type into a DOM element.

Syntax

.type(text)
.type(text, options)

Usage

Correct Usage

cy.get('input').type('Hello, World') // Type 'Hello, World' into the 'input'

Incorrect Usage

cy.type('Welcome')               // Errors, cannot be chained off 'cy'
cy.url().type('www.cypress.io')  // Errors, 'url' does not yield DOM element

Arguments

text (String)

The text to be typed into the DOM element.

Text passed to .type() may include any of these special character sequences:

Sequence Notes
{{} Types the literal { key
{backspace} Deletes character to the left of the cursor
{del} Deletes character to the right of the cursor
{downarrow} Fires down event but does not move the cursor
{enter} Types the Enter key
{esc} Types the Escape key
{leftarrow} Moves cursor left
{rightarrow} Moves cursor right
{selectall} Selects all text by creating a selection range
{uparrow} Fires up event but does not move the cursor

Text passed to .type() may also include any of the these modifier character sequences:

Sequence Notes
{alt} Activates the altKey modifier. Aliases: {option}
{ctrl} Activates the ctrlKey modifier. Aliases: {control}
{meta} Activates the metaKey modifier. Aliases: {command}, {cmd}
{shift} Activates the shiftKey modifier.

options (Object)

Pass in an options object to change the default behavior of .type().

Option Default Description
log true Displays the command in the Command Log
delay 10 Delay after each keypress
force false Forces the action, disables waiting for actionability
release true Keep a modifier activated between commands
timeout defaultCommandTimeout Time to wait for .type() to resolve before timing out

Yields

  • .type() yields the same subject it was given from the previous command.

Examples

Input/Textarea

Type into a textarea.

cy.get('textarea').type('Hello world') // yields <textarea>

Type into a login form

Check out our example recipe of logging in by typing username and password

Mimic user typing behavior

Each keypress is delayed 10ms by default in order to simulate how a very fast user types!

cy.get('[contenteditable]').type('some text!')

Tabindex

Type into a non-input or non-textarea element with tabindex

<body>
  <div id="el" tabindex="1">
    This div can receive focus!
  </div>
</body>
cy.get('#el').type('supercalifragilisticexpialidocious')

Date Inputs

Using .type() on a date input (<input type="date">) requires specifying a valid date in the format:

  • yyyy-MM-dd (e.g. 1999-12-31)

This isn’t exactly how a user would type into a date input, but is a workaround since date input support varies between browsers and the format varies based on locale. yyyy-MM-dd is the format required by the W3 spec and is what the input’s value will be set to regardless of browser or locale.

Special characters ({leftarrow}, {selectall}, etc) are not permitted.

Month Inputs

Using .type() on a month input (<input type="month">) requires specifying a valid month in the format:

  • yyyy-MM (e.g. 1999-12)

This isn’t exactly how a user would type into a month input, but is a workaround since month input support varies between browsers and the format varies based on locale. yyyy-MM is the format required by the W3 spec and is what the input’s value will be set to regardless of browser or locale.

Special characters ({leftarrow}, {selectall}, etc) are not permitted.

Week Inputs

Using .type() on a week input (<input type="week">) requires specifying a valid week in the format:

  • yyyy-Www (e.g. 1999-W23)

Where W is the literal character ‘W’ and ww is the number of the week (01-53).

This isn’t exactly how a user would type into a week input, but is a workaround since week input support varies between browsers and the format varies based on locale. yyyy-Www is the format required by the W3 spec and is what the input’s value will be set to regardless of browser or locale.

Special characters ({leftarrow}, {selectall}, etc) are not permitted.

Time Inputs

Using .type() on a time input (<input type="time">) requires specifying a valid time in the format:

  • HH:mm (e.g. 01:30 or 23:15)
  • HH:mm:ss (e.g. 10:00:30)
  • HH:mm:ss.SSS (e.g. 12:00:00.384)

Where HH is 00-23, mm is 00-59, ss is 00-59, and SSS is 000-999.

Special characters ({leftarrow}, {selectall}, etc) are not permitted.

Key Combinations

When using special character sequences, it’s possible to activate modifier keys and type key combinations, such as CTRL + R or SHIFT + ALT + Q. The modifier(s) remain activated for the duration of the .type() command, and are released when all subsequent characters are typed, unless {release: false} is passed as an option. A keydown event is fired when a modifier is activated and a keyup event is fired when it is released.

Type a key combination

// this is the same as a user holding down SHIFT and ALT, then pressing Q
cy.get('input').type('{shift}{alt}Q')

Hold down modifier key and type a word

// all characters after {ctrl} will have 'ctrlKey'
// set to 'true' on their key events
cy.get('input').type('{ctrl}test')

Release behavior

By default, modifiers are released after each type command.

// 'ctrlKey' will be true for each event while 'test' is typed
// but false while 'everything' is typed
cy.get('input').type('{ctrl}test').type('everything')

To keep a modifier activated between commands, specify {release: false} in the options.

// 'altKey' will be true while typing 'foo'
cy.get('input').type('{alt}foo', { release: false })
// 'altKey' will also be true during 'get' and 'click' commands
cy.get('button').click()

Modifiers are automatically released between tests, even with {release: false}.

it('has modifiers activated', function () {
  // 'altKey' will be true while typing 'foo'
  cy.get('input').type('{alt}foo', {release: false})
})

it('does not have modifiers activated', function () {
  // 'altKey' will be false while typing 'bar'
  cy.get('input').type('bar')
})

To manually release modifiers within a test after using {release: false}, use another type command and the modifier will be released after it.

// 'altKey' will be true while typing 'foo'
cy.get('input').type('{alt}foo', {release: false})
// 'altKey' will be true during the 'get' and 'click' commands
cy.get('button').click()
// 'altKey' will be released after this command
cy.get('input').type('{alt}')
// 'altKey' will be false during the 'get' and 'click' commands
cy.get('button').click()

Global Shortcuts

.type() requires a focusable element as the subject, since it’s usually intended to type into something that’s an input or textarea. Although there are a few cases where it’s valid to “type” into something other than an input or textarea:

  • Keyboard shortcuts where the listener is on the document or body.
  • Holding modifier keys and clicking an arbitrary element.

To support this, the body can be used as the DOM element to type into (even though it’s not a focusable element).

Use keyboard shortcuts in body

// all of the type events are fired on the body
cy.get('body').type('{uparrow}{uparrow}{downarrow}{downarrow}{leftarrow}{rightarrow}{leftarrow}{rightarrow}ba')

Do a shift + click

// execute a SHIFT + click on the first <li>
// {release: false} is necessary so that
// SHIFT will not be released after the type command
cy.get('body').type('{shift}', {release: false}).get('li:first').click()

Options

Force typing regardless of its actionable state

Forcing typing overrides the actionable checks Cypress applies and will automatically fire the events.

cy.get('input[type=text]').type('Test all the things', { force: true })

Notes

Actionability

.type() is an “action command” that follows all the rules defined here.

Events

When element is not in focus

If the element is currently not in focus, before issuing any keystrokes Cypress will first issue a .click() to the element to bring it into focus.

All of the normal events documented on .click() will fire.

Events that fire

Once the element is in focus, Cypress will begin firing keyboard events.

The following events will be fired based on what key was pressed identical to the event spec:

  • keydown
  • keypress
  • textInput
  • input
  • keyup

beforeinput is not fired even though it is in the spec because no browser has adopted it.

Additionally change events will be fired either when the {enter} key is pressed (and the value has changed since the last focus event), or whenever the element loses focus. This matches browser behavior.

Events that should not fire on non input types such as elements with tabindex do not fire their textInput or input events. Only typing into elements which cause the actual value or text to change will fire those events.

Event Firing

The following rules have been implemented that match real browser behavior (and the spec):

  1. Cypress respects not firing subsequent events if previous ones were cancelled.
  2. Cypress will fire keypress only if that key is supposed to actually fire keypress.
  3. Cypress will fire textInput only if typing that key would have inserted an actual character.
  4. Cypress will fire input only if typing that key modifies or changes the value of the element.

Event Cancellation

Cypress respects all default browser behavior when events are cancelled.

// prevent the characters from being inserted
// by canceling keydown, keypress, or textInput
$('#username').on('keydown', (e) => {
  e.preventDefault();
})

// Cypress will not insert any characters if keydown, keypress, or textInput
// are cancelled - which matches the default browser behavior
cy.get('#username').type('[email protected]').should('have.value', '') // true

Preventing mousedown does not prevent typing

In a real browser, preventing mousedown on a form field will prevent it from receiving focus and thus prevent it from being able to be typed into. Currently, Cypress does not factor this in. Open an issue if you need this to be fixed.

Key Events Table

Cypress prints out a table of key events that detail the keys that were pressed when clicking on type within the Command Log. Each character will contain the which character code and the events that happened as a result of that key press.

Events that were defaultPrevented may prevent other events from firing and those will show up as empty. For instance, canceling keydown will not fire keypress or textInput or input, but will fire keyup (which matches the spec).

Additionally, events that cause a change event to fire (such as typing {enter}) will display with the change event column as true.

Any modifiers activated for the event are also listed in a modifiers column.

Cypress .type() key events table

Tabbing

Typing tab key does not work

Tabbing will be implemented as a separate command as .tab() and support things like multiple tabs, tabbing in reverse, or tabbing to a specific element. If you need this to be fixed, please thumbs up this issue.

Modifiers

Modifier effects

In a real browser, if a user holds SHIFT and types a, a capital A will be typed into the input. Currently, Cypress does not simulate that behavior.

Modifiers are simulated by setting their corresponding values to true for key and click events. So, for example, activating the {shift} modifier will set event.shiftKey to true for any key events, such as keydown.

// app code
document.querySelector('input:first').addEventListener('keydown', (e) => {
  // e.shiftKey will be true
})

// in test
cy.get('input:first').type('{shift}a')

In the example above, a lowercase a will be typed, because that’s the literal character specified. To type a capital A, you can use .type('{shift}A') (or simply .type('A') if you don’t care about the shiftKey property on any key events).

This holds true for other special key combinations as well (that may be OS-specific). For example, on OSX, typing ALT + SHIFT + K creates the special character . Like with capitalization, .type() will not output , but simply the letter k. Open an issue if you need modifier effects to be implemented.

Form Submission

Implicit form submission behavior

Cypress automatically matches the spec and browser behavior for pressing the {enter} key when the input belongs to a <form>.

This behavior is defined here: Form Implicit Submission.

For instance the following will submit the form.

<form action="/login">
  <input id="username" />
  <input id="password" />
  <button type="submit">Log In</button>
</form>
cy.get('#username').type('[email protected]')
cy.get('#password').type('password123{enter}')

Because there are multiple inputs and one submit button, Cypress submits the form (and fires submit events) as well as a synthetic click event to the button.

The spec defines the “submit” button as the first input[type=submit] or button[type!=button] from the form.

Additionally Cypress handles these 4 other situations as defined in the spec:

  1. Does not submit a form if there are multiple inputs and no submit button.
  2. Does not submit a form if the submit button is disabled.
  3. Submits a form, but does not fire synthetic click event, if there is 1 input and no submit button
  4. Submits form and fires a synthetic click event to the submit when it exists.

Of course if the form’s submit event is preventedDefault the form will not actually be submitted.

Rules

Requirements

  • .type() requires being chained off a command that yields DOM element(s).

Assertions

  • .type() will automatically wait for the element to reach an actionable state.

  • .type() will automatically wait for assertions you've chained to pass.

Timeouts

  • .type() can time out waiting for the element to reach an actionable state.

  • .type() can time out waiting for assertions you've added to pass.

Command Log

Type into the input

cy.get('input[name=firstName]').type('Jane Lane')

The commands above will display in the command log as:

Command Log

When clicking on type within the command log, the console outputs the following:

Console Log

See also