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Error Messages

Test File Errors​

No tests found​

This message means that Cypress was unable to find tests in the specified file. You'll likely get this message if you have an empty test file and have not yet written any tests.

No tests found

We found an error preparing your test file​

This message means that Cypress encountered an error when compiling and/or bundling your test file. Cypress automatically compiles and bundles your test code so you can use ES2015, CoffeeScript, modules, etc.

You'll typically receive this message due to:​

  • The file not existing
  • A syntax error in the file or one of its dependencies
  • A missing dependency

When the error is fixed in your test file, your tests will automatically re-run.

Support File Errors​

Support file missing or invalid​

The supportFolder option was removed from Cypress in version 0.18.0 and was replaced by module support and the supportFile configuration option.

Cypress used to automatically include any scripts in the supportFolder before your test files. However, automatically including all the files in a certain directory is somewhat magical and unintuitive, and requires creating globals for the purpose of utility functions.

Error Loading Config​

The supportFile configuration option was removed from the root configutation object in Cypress version 10.0.0. Instead, it must be added within each testing type's configuration object as a separate property if you would like to use a file other than the default supportFile configuration.

Use modules for utility functions​

Cypress supports both ES2015 modules and CommonJS modules. You can import/require npm modules as well as local modules:

import _ from 'lodash'
import util from './util'

it('uses modules', () => {

Use supportFile to load scripts before your test code​

It's still useful to load a setup file before your test code. If you are setting Cypress defaults or utilizing custom Cypress commands, instead of needing to import/require those defaults/commands in every test file, you can use the supportFile configuration option within each testing type's configuration object.


⚠️ For a given testing type, multiple matching supportFile files will result in an error when Cypress loads.

Just like with your test files, the supportFile can use ES2015+, TypeScript or CoffeeScript and modules, so you can import/require other files as needed.

Command Errors​

Cypress cannot execute commands outside a running test​

Cannot execute commands

This message means you tried to execute one or more Cypress commands outside of a currently running test. Cypress has to be able to associate commands to a specific test.

Typically this happens accidentally, like in the following situation.

describe('Some Tests', () => {
it('is true', () => {
expect(true) // yup, fine

it('is false', () => {
expect(false) // yup, also fine

context('some nested tests', () => {
// oops you forgot to write an it(...) here!
// these cypress commands below
// are running outside of a test and cypress
// throws an error
cy.get('h1').should('contain', 'todos')

Move those Cypress commands into an it(...) block and everything will work correctly.

If you are purposefully writing commands outside of a test, there is probably a better way to accomplish what you're trying to do. Read through the Examples or check out our Support channels for more troubleshooting resources.

cy...() failed because the page updated​

Getting this error means you've tried to interact with a "dead" DOM element - meaning the current subject has been removed from the DOM.

cy.method() failed because the page updated

Cypress errors because after a command, the subject becomes 'fixed' to a specific element - since it can't retry commands, if the element becomes detached from the page, we can't assert or interact on it.

Let's take a look at an example below.

Application HTML​

<div data-testid="parent">

Application JavaScript​

$('button').click(function () {
// when the <button> is clicked
// we remove the button from the DOM,
// and add a new, identical one.

Test Code causing error​


We've programmed our application above so that as soon as the click event happens, the button is removed from the DOM. When Cypress begins processing the next query (.parent()) in the test above, it detects that the yielded subject (the original button) is detached from the DOM and throws the error.

Fortunately, the error tells us exactly what to do:

You can typically solve this by breaking up a chain.

Fixed Test Code​


The above example is an oversimplification, but a representative one. In modern JavaScript frameworks, DOM elements are regularly re-rendered - meaning that the old element is thrown away and a new one is put in its place. Because this happens so fast, it may appear as if nothing has visibly changed to the user. But if you are in the middle of executing test commands, it's possible the element you're interacting with has become "dead". To deal with this situation you must:

  • Always start a new chain after each command.
  • Use Cypress queries to locate elements on the page, rather than using specific HTML elements as your subject

Queries (.get(), .as() and.parent(), for example) and assertions (.should(), .and()) are safe to chain off of. Commands (such as .click()) are not.

cy...() failed because the element cannot be interacted with​

You may see a variation of this message for 4 different reasons:

  1. The element is not visible
  2. The element is being covered by another element
  3. The element's center is hidden from view
  4. The element is disabled

Cypress runs several calculations to ensure an element can actually be interacted with like a real user would. If you're seeing this error, you may need to guard your commands (due to a timing or an animation issue).

There have been situations where Cypress does not correctly allow you to interact with an element that should be interactable. If that's the case, open an issue.

If you'd like to override these built-in checks, provide the {force: true} option to the action itself. Refer to each command for their available options, additional use cases, and argument usage.

Ignore built-in error checking​

cy.get('[disabled]').click({force: true}).

Be careful with this option. It's possible to force your tests to pass when the element is actually not interactable in your application.

cy...() failed because the element is currently animating​

cy.method() failed because element is animating

By default Cypress detects if an element you're trying to interact with is animating. This check ensures that an element is not animating too quickly for a real user to interact with the element. This also prevents some edge cases where actions, such as .type() or .click(), happened too fast during a transition.

Cypress will continuously attempt to interact with the element until it eventually times out. If you'd like to force Cypress to interact with the element there are a few options:

  • Pass {force: true}. This disables all error checking
  • Pass {waitForAnimations: false} to disable animation error checking
  • Pass {animationDistanceThreshold: 20} to decrease the sensitivity of detecting if an element is animating. By increasing the threshold this enables your element to move farther on the page without causing Cypress to continuously retry.
cy.get('[data-testid="modal-close"]').click({ waitForAnimations: false })

You can globally disable animation error checking, or increase the threshold by modifying the Cypress configuration.

Cypress configuration file​

const { defineConfig } = require('cypress')

module.exports = defineConfig({
waitForAnimations: false,
animationDistanceThreshold: 50,

The test has finished but Cypress still has commands in its queue​

Let's examine several different ways you may get this error message. In every situation, you'll need to change something in your test code to prevent the error.

The test has finished but Cypress still has commands
Flaky tests below!

Several of these tests are dependent on race conditions. You may have to run these tests multiple times before they will actually fail. You can also try tweaking some of the delays.

Short Example​

This first test below will pass and shows you that Cypress tries to prevent leaving commands behind in the queue in every test.

Even though we return a string in our test, Cypress automatically figures out that you've queued commands above and does not end the test until all cy commands have finished.

// This test passes!
it('Cypress is smart and this does not fail', () => {
cy.get('body').children().should('not.contain', 'foo') // <- no return here

return 'foobarbaz' // <- return here

The example below will fail because you've forcibly terminated the test early with mocha's done.

// This test errors!
it('but you can forcibly end the test early which does fail', (done) => {
.then(() => {
done() // forcibly end test even though there are commands below
.should('not.contain', 'foo')

Complex Async Example​

What's happening in this example is that because we have NOT told Mocha this is an asynchronous test, this test will pass immediately then move onto the next test. Then, when the setTimeout callback function runs, new commands will get queued on the wrong test. Cypress will detect this and fail the next test.

describe('a complex example with async code', function () {
it('you can cause commands to bleed into the next test', function () {
// This test passes...but...
setTimeout(() => {
cy.get('body').children().should('not.contain', 'foo')
}, 10)

it('this test will fail due to the previous poorly written test', () => {
// This test errors!

The correct way to write the above test code is using Mocha's done to signify it is asynchronous.

it('does not cause commands to bleed into the next test', (done) => {
setTimeout(() => {
.should('not.contain', 'foo')
.then(() => {
}, 10)

Complex Promise Example​

In the example below, we forget to return the Promise in our test. This means the test passes synchronously but our Promise resolves in the next test. This also causes the commands to be queued on the wrong test. We will get the error in the next test that Cypress detected it had commands in its command queue.

describe('another complex example using a forgotten "return"', () => {
it('forgets to return a promise', () => {
// This test passes...but...
Cypress.Promise.delay(10).then(() => {
cy.get('body').children().should('not.contain', 'foo')

it('this test will fail due to the previous poorly written test', () => {
// This test errors!

The correct way to write the above test code would be to return our Promise:

it('does not forget to return a promise', () => {
return Cypress.Promise.delay(10).then(() => {
return cy.get('body').children().should('not.contain', 'foo')

cy.visit() failed because you are attempting to visit a second unique domain​


This error only pertains to Cypress version v11.0.0 and under. As of Cypress v12.0.0, users can navigate to multiple domains in a single test.

See our Web Security documentation.

cy.visit() failed because you are attempting to visit a different origin domain​


This error only pertains to Cypress version v11.0.0 and under. As of Cypress v12.0.0, users can navigate to multiple domains in a single test.

Two URLs have the same origin if the protocol, port (if specified), and host are the same for both. You can only visit domains that are of the same-origin within a single test. You can read more about same-origin policy in general here.

You can visit urls that are of different origin across different tests, so you may consider splitting your cy.visit() of different origin domains into separate tests.

See our Web Security documentation for more information and workarounds.

cy.visit() succeeded, but commands are timing out​

As of Cypress v12.0.0, users can navigate to multiple domains in a single test. The following test will succeed as-is:

it('navigates to', () => {
cy.visit('') // visit a different superdomain

However, when the newly visited URL is not considered the same superdomain, the cy.origin() command must be used to interact with the newly visited domain. The following test is incorrect:

it('navigates to and runs additional commands', () => {
cy.visit('') // visit a different superdomain
cy.get('h1').should('contain', 'Why Cypress?') // fails

And will result in the following error:

cy.visit() subsequent commands timed out

In order to fix this, our cy.get() command must be wrapped with the cy.origin() command, like so:

it('navigates to and runs additional commands', () => {
cy.visit('') // visit a different superdomain
cy.origin('', () => {
cy.get('h1').should('contain', 'Why Cypress?') // now succeeds!

See our Web Security documentation for more information and workarounds.

Cypress.addParentCommand() / Cypress.addDualCommand() / Cypress.addChildCommand() has been removed and replaced by Cypress.Commands.add()​

In version 0.20.0, we removed the commands for adding custom commands and replaced them with, what we believe to be, a simpler interface.

Now you can create parent, dual, and child commands using the same Cypress.Commands.add() command.

Please read our new documentation on writing custom commands.

Cypress detected that you invoked one or more cy commands in a custom command but returned a different value.​

Because cy commands are asynchronous and are queued to be run later, it doesn't make sense to return anything else.

For convenience, you can also omit any return value or return undefined and Cypress will not error.

In versions before 0.20.0 of Cypress we automatically detected this and forced the cy commands to be returned. To make things less magical and clearer, we are now throwing an error.

Cypress detected that you invoked one or more cy commands but returned a different value.​

Because cy commands are asynchronous and are queued to be run later, it doesn't make sense to return anything else.

For convenience, you can also omit any return value or return undefined and Cypress will not error.

In versions before 0.20.0 of Cypress we automatically detected this and forced the cy commands to be returned. To make things less magical and clearer, we are now throwing an error.

Cypress detected that you returned a promise from a command while also invoking one or more cy commands in that promise.​

Because Cypress commands are already promise-like, you don't need to wrap them or return your own promise.

Cypress will resolve your command with whatever the final Cypress command yields.

The reason this is an error instead of a warning is because Cypress internally queues commands serially whereas Promises execute as soon as they are invoked. Attempting to reconcile this would prevent Cypress from ever resolving.

Cypress detected that you returned a promise in a test, but also invoked one or more cy commands inside of that promise.​

While this works in practice, it's often indicative of an anti-pattern. You almost never need to return both a promise and also invoke cy commands.

cy commands themselves are already promise like, and you can likely avoid the use of the separate Promise.

Cypress detected that you returned a promise in a test, but also invoked a done callback.​

The version of Mocha was upgraded with Cypress 4.0. Mocha 3+ no longer allows returning a promise and invoking a done callback. Read more about it in the 4.0 migration guide.

CypressError: Timed out retrying: Expected to find element: ‘…’, but never found it. Queried from element: <…>​

If you get this error in a case where the element is definitely visible in the DOM, your document might contain malformed HTML. In such cases, document.querySelector() will not find any elements that appear after the point where the HTML is malformed. Even if you feel certain your HTML is not malformed anywhere, check it anyway (line by line in the dev tools). Especially if you've exhausted all other possibilities.

CLI Errors​

You passed the --record flag but did not provide us your Record Key.​

You may receive this error when trying to run Cypress tests in Continuous Integration. This means that you did not pass a specific record key to: cypress run --record.

Since no record key was passed, Cypress checks for any environment variable with the name CYPRESS_RECORD_KEY. In this case, that was also not found.

You can get your project's record key by locating it in your settings tab in the Cypress app or in Cypress Cloud.

You will want to then add the key to your config file or as an environment variable.

The cypress ci command has been deprecated​

As of version 0.19.0 and CLI versions 0.13.0, the cypress ci command has been deprecated. We did this to make it clearer what the difference was between a regular test run and a recorded test run.

Previously to record runs you had the environment variable: CYPRESS_CI_KEY or you wrote:

cypress ci abc-key-123

You need to rewrite this as:

cypress run --record --key abc-key-123

If you were using the environment variable CYPRESS_CI_KEY, rename it toCYPRESS_RECORD_KEY.

You can now run and omit the --key flag:

cypress run --record

We will automatically apply the record key environment variable.

A Cached Cypress Binary Could not be found​

This error occurs in CI when using cypress run without a valid Cypress binary cache installed on the system (on linux that's ~/.cache/Cypress).

To fix this error, follow instructions on caching the cypress binary in CI, then bump the version of your CI cache to ensure a clean build.

Incorrect usage of --ci-build-id flag​

You passed the --ci-build-id flag but did not provide either a --group or --parallel flag.

The --ci-build-id flag is used to either group or parallelize multiple runs together.

Check out our guide on parallelizing runs and when to use the --ci-build-id option.

The --ci-build-id, --group, --tag, --parallel, or --auto-cancel-after-failures flags can only be used when recording​

You passed the --ci-build-id, --group, --tag, --parallel, or --auto-cancel-after-failures flag without also passing the --record flag.

These flags can only be used when recording to Cypress Cloud.

Please review our parallelization documentation to learn more.

We could not determine a unique CI build ID​

You passed the --group or --parallel flag but we could not automatically determine or generate a ciBuildId.

In order to use either of these parameters a ciBuildId must be determined.

The ciBuildId is automatically detected if you are running Cypress in most CI providers. Please review the natively recognized environment variables for your CI provider.

You can avoid this check in the future by passing an ID to the --ci-build-id flag manually.

Please review our parallelization documentation to learn more.

Group name has already been used for this run​

You passed the --group flag, but this group name has already been used for this run.

If you are trying to parallelize this run, then also pass the --parallel flag, else pass a different group name.

Please review grouping test runs documentation to learn more.

Cannot parallelize tests across environments​

You passed the --parallel flag, but we do not parallelize tests across different environments.

This machine is sending different environment parameters than the first machine that started this parallel run.

In order to run in parallel mode each machine must send identical environment parameters such as:

  • Specs
  • Operation system name
  • Operating system version
  • Browser name
  • Major browser version

Please review our parallelization documentation to learn more.

Cannot parallelize tests in this group​

You passed the --parallel flag, but this run group was originally created without the --parallel flag.

You cannot use the --parallel flag with this group.

Please review our grouping test runs documentation to learn more.

Run must pass --parallel flag​

You did not pass the --parallel flag, but this run's group was originally created with the --parallel flag.

You must use the --parallel flag with this group.

Please review our parallelization documentation to learn more.

Cannot parallelize tests on a stale run​

This error is thrown when you are attempting to pass the --parallel flag to a run that Cypress detected was completed over 24 hours ago.

In order to uniquely identify each run during cypress run, Cypress attempts to read a unique identifier from your CI provider as described in our parallelization doc.

You may encounter this error if Cypress is detecting the exact same CI Build ID matching a previous CI Build ID in a run that was completed over 24 hours ago. You cannot run tests on a run that has been complete for that long. ​ ​You can see the CI Build ID that is detected for each completed run by looking at the details section at the top of your run in Cypress Cloud. ​ ​You can generate and pass in your own unique CI Build ID per run as described here.

Please also review our parallelization documentation to learn more.

Run is not accepting any new groups​

The run you are attempting access to is already complete and will not accept new groups.

When a run finishes all of its groups, it waits for a configurable set of time, a run completion delay, before completing. All cypress run calls with any new groups must be executed during that time period.


  • If you are passing --ci-build-id, make sure it is generating a unique value for the run. If it is not unique and matches a previous run, you may see this error.
  • If you are running cypress run calls in parallel and they are not completing within the default 60 second run completion delay, you can increase this delay. See instructions.

Please review our parallelization documentation to learn more.

The Cypress App could not be unzipped. This is most likely because the maximum path length is being exceeded on your system.​

When Cypress is installed, it unzips to the designated cache location on your computer. This error means that Cypress detected that it has exceeded the maximum path length while unzipping Cypress.

This is common on Windows, where the maximum path length used to be 260 characters.

To fix this error, enable "long paths" on your Windows system:

  1. Go to the Start Menu, and right click on PowerShell. Select "Run as administrator."
  2. Run this command:
New-ItemProperty -Path "HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\FileSystem" `
-Name "LongPathsEnabled" -Value 1 -PropertyType DWORD -Force
  1. Restart your computer.

This should get rid of the error. If you are still receiving this error, please search for an open issue or open a new one.

If you do not have Powershell available, you can also make this change via regedit or gpedit. See Microsoft's documentation for details.

error: unknown option: --auto-cancel-after-failures​

The --auto-cancel-after-failures flag is only available in Cypress 12.6.0 and later, and must be used with the cypress run command.

--auto-cancel-after-failures must be a integer or false​

You passed in an invalid value for the --auto-cancel-after-failures flag. It must be an integer or false.

--auto-cancel-after-failures passed without a Business or Enterprise Cloud account​

Auto Cancellation is not included in your current billing plan. To enable this service, please visit your billing and upgrade to another plan with Auto Cancellation.

You passed the --auto-cancel-after-failures flag for a run that is already in progress​

You passed the --auto-cancel-after-failures flag, but this run originally started with a different value on this --auto-cancel-after-failures flag.

The first setting of --auto-cancel-after-failures for any given run takes precedent.

Page Load Errors​

Cypress detected a cross-origin error happened on page load​


For a more thorough explanation of Cypress's Web Security model, please read our dedicated guide to it.

This error means that your application navigated to a superdomain that Cypress was not bound to. Initially when you cy.visit(), Cypress changes the browser's URL to match the url passed to cy.visit(). This enables Cypress to communicate with your application to bypass all same-origin security policies among other things.

When your application navigates to a superdomain outside of the current origin-policy, Cypress is unable to communicate with it, and thus fails.

There are a few workarounds to these common situations:​

  1. Don't click <a> links in your tests that navigate outside of your application. Likely this isn't worth testing anyway. You should ask yourself: What's the point of clicking and going to another app? Likely all you care about is that the href attribute matches what you expect. So make an assertion about that. You can see more strategies on testing anchor links in our "Tab Handling and Links" example recipe.

  2. You are testing a page that uses Single sign-on (SSO). In this case your web server is likely redirecting you between superdomains, so you receive this error message. You can likely get around this redirect problem by using cy.request() to manually handle the session yourself.

If you find yourself stuck and can't work around these issues you can set chromeWebSecurity to false in your Cypress configuration when running in Chrome family browsers (this setting will not work in other browsers). Before doing so you should really understand and read about the reasoning here.

const { defineConfig } = require('cypress')

module.exports = defineConfig({
chromeWebSecurity: false,

Cypress detected that an uncaught error was thrown from a cross-origin script.​

Check your Developer Tools Console for the actual error - it should be printed there.

It's possible to enable debugging these scripts by adding the crossorigin attribute and setting a CORS header.

Browser Errors​

The browser process running your tests just exited unexpectedly​

This error can occur whenever Cypress detects that the launched browser has exited or crashed before the tests could finish running.

This can happen for a number of reasons, including:

  • The browser was exited manually, by clicking the "Quit" button or otherwise
  • Your test suite or application under test is starving the browser of resources.
  • Cypress is running in a memory-starved environment
  • The browser is testing a memory-heavy application
  • There are problems with the GPU / GPU drivers
  • There is a bug in the browser involving memory management
  • There is a memory leak in Cypress

For Chromium-based browsers, you can try enabling experimentalMemoryManagement.

If you are running in open mode, you can also try lowering numTestsKeptInMemory.

If the browser running Cypress tests crashes, Cypress will abort any remaining tests and print out this error.

Cypress App errors​

Whoops, we can't run your tests​

This error happens when Cypress detects that the browser automation is not connected, or that Cypress's internal proxy is being bypassed. This is caused by one of the following:

A policy setting blocks the Cypress proxy server or browser extension

The --proxy-server or --load-extension arguments have been changed

  • When adding a plugin with the Browser Launch API, it's possible for a necessary command-line argument to be changed. If you're running into this error, you can troubleshoot by inspecting args before and after the plugin runs, either by using console.log() or by printing DEBUG logs with DEBUG=cypress:server:plugins,cypress:server:plugins:*.

You visit the Cypress proxy URL outside of a Cypress browser.

  • Don't copy the URL you see when launching a Cypress browser from the Cypress App and open it in a non-Cypress browser. If you want to run your tests in a different browser, follow the instructions in the Cross Browser Testing guide.

Cannot connect to API server​

Logging in, viewing runs, and setting up new projects to record requires connecting to an external API server. This error displays when we failed to connect to the API server.

This error likely appeared because:

  1. You do not have internet. Please ensure you have connectivity then try again.
  2. You are a developer that has forked our codebase and do not have access to run our API locally. Please read more about this in our contributing doc.

Cypress detected policy settings on your computer that may cause issues​

When Cypress launches Chrome, it attempts to launch it with a custom proxy server and browser extension. Certain group policies (GPOs) on Windows can prevent this from working as intended, which can cause tests to break.

If your administrator has set any of the following Chrome GPOs, it can prevent your tests from running in Chrome:

  • Proxy policies: ProxySettings, ProxyMode, ProxyServerMode, ProxyServer, ProxyPacUrl, ProxyBypassList
  • Extension policies: ExtensionInstallBlacklist, ExtensionInstallWhitelist, ExtensionInstallForcelist, ExtensionInstallSources, ExtensionAllowedTypes, ExtensionAllowInsecureUpdates, ExtensionSettings, UninstallBlacklistedExtensions

Here are some potential workarounds:

  1. Ask your administrator to disable these policies so that you can use Cypress with Chrome.
  2. Use the built-in Electron browser for tests, since it is not affected by these policies. See the guide to launching browsers for more information.
  3. Try using Chromium instead of Google Chrome for your tests, since it may be unaffected by GPO. You can download the latest Chromium build here.
  4. If you have Local Administrator access to your computer, you may be able to delete the registry keys that are affecting Chrome. Here are some instructions:
    1. Open up Registry Editor by pressing WinKey+R and typing regedit.exe
    2. Look in the following locations for the policy settings listed above:
      • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Policies\Google\Chrome
      • HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Policies\Google\Chromium
      • HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Policies\Google\Chrome
      • HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Policies\Google\Chromium
    3. Delete or rename any policy keys found. Make sure to back up your registry before making any changes.

Uncaught exceptions from your application​

When Cypress detects an uncaught exception in your application, it will fail the currently running test.

You can turn off this behavior globally or conditionally with the uncaught:exception event. Please see the Catalog of Events for examples.

On a technical note, Cypress considers uncaught exceptions to be any error that is uncaught by your application, whether they are "standard" errors or unhandled promise rejections. If the error triggers the window's global error handler or its unhandledrejection handler, Cypress will detect it and fail the test.